True (but not false) memories are subject to retrieval-induced forgetting in children

This paper’s researchers studied the concept of retrieval-induced forgetting in children. Researchers found that while actual memories were indeed subject to retrieval-induced forgetting, false meories were not. The finding suggests cue indepedence – the idea of cues being entirely independent from one another – doesn’t necessarily hold true.   Read full paper     Authors: Heather L. Price, Thomas L....

Comparing the Impact of Explicit and Implicit Resistance Induction Strategies on Message Persuasiveness

Researchers studied people’s resistance to persuasion, testing traditional explicit warnings against implicit priming warnings. They found simply reminding people of a situation in which someone attempted to influence them (ie, implicit priming) was as effective in helping people resist persuasion as explicit warnings, yet required less cognitive strain.   Read full paper     Authors: Marieke L. Fransen, Bob M....

Three Domains of Learning – Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor

The distinguished expert in education and learning discusses the hierarchies of the three domains of learning. After discussing the different stages of cognivite learning, Owen Wilson discuess emotional learning and physical learning. The piece breaks each area of learning down into building blocks that, when applied, may be used to further a student or pupil’s or learning.   Read full paper     Authors: Leslie Owen...

Decision-Making Under Risk: Integrating Perspectives From Biology, Economics, and Psychology

This review critiques four influential theories of decision-making from economics, psychology, and biology: expected utility theory; prospect theory; risk-sensitivity theory; and heuristic approaches. After doing so, it offers suggestions for integrating theories from different disciplines; a topic largely overlooked in academic literature.   Read full paper     Authors: Sandeep...

Building a Self-Regulatory Model of Sleep Deprivation and Deception: The Role of Caffeine and Social Influence

This study first examines the role that caffeine plays in moderating the depletion of self-regulatory resources, finding caffeine does indeed boost self-regulatory resources. The study also examines how social influence impacts deceptive behaviours at work, finding those with depleted self-regulatory resources succumb to social influence, fall in line with others around them and typically engage in more deceptive behaviours.   Read full paper     Authors: David T. Welsh, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Michael S. Christian, and Ke Michael...

Using behavioural insights to improve the public’s use of cyber security best practices

Behavioural change theory suggests influencers of behavioural change include environmental factors (such as technological design), social influencers (such as peers or family) and personal influencers (such as what we know and believe). Using the MINDSPACE framework helps design behaviour change interventions built on sound theories, maximising the chances of behaviour change. Interestingly, this paper notes messages of fear can backfire if they begin to be perceived as scaremongering (ie, if users never actually experience attacks first hand).   Read full paper    ...

Effects of Self-Relevant Perspective-Taking on the Impact of Persuasive Appeals

Researchers offer participants persuasive communications in the form of charitable appeals and commercial advertisements. By drawing the attention of the participant to how similar they are with either a victim of misfortune (in a charitable appeal) or a protagonist (in a commercial appeal), researchers conclude persuasive power increases when similarities are high, decreases when similarities are moderately low and has no effect when similarities are very low.   Read full paper     Authors: IW Hung, RS Wyer...

Poverty Impedes Cognitive Function

This paper suggests that poverty impedes cognitive functioning, as poverty-related concerns require a lot of mental resources and leave less space for other cognitive tasks. The thesis was indicated through 2 studies. Implications include avoiding cognitively taxing the poor (as is common with monetary taxes) and/or timing cognitively taxing events to occur at specific times.     Read full paper     Authors: Anandi Mani, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir, Jiaying...

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion (Chapter 7)

In chapter 7 of this book, Jonathan Haidt draws on economic and social psychological research to show how demonstrations of violations of care, fairness, loyalty, authority and sanctity can be used in different ways to promote both right wing and left wing politcal messages. The same triggers, notes Haidt, can lead to different behaviours.   Read full paper     Authors: Jonathan...

Similarities and Differences Between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence From the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

This paper tests the effects of depth of processing on both working memory and long-term memory. The results indicate that the depth of processing had little effect on working memory tests; however, the typical benefits of semantic processing was seen in long term memory tests.     Read full paper     Authors: Nathan S. Rose, Joel Myerson, Henry L. Roediger III, Sandra...

Evolution, stress, and sensitive periods: the influence of unpredictability in early versus late childhood on sex and risky behavior.

Researchers tested how harshness and unpredictability experienced in early childhood (age 0-5) and in later childhood (age 6-16) predicted sexual and risky behavior at age 23. Findings showed the strongest predictor of both sexual and risky behavior was an unpredictable environment between ages 0 and 5. Individuals exposed to more unpredictable, rapidly changing environments during the first 5 years of life had more sexual partners, engaged in more aggressive and delinquent behaviors, and were more likely to be associated with criminal activities by age 23. For the most part, exposure to...

Perceived Deception in Advertising: Proposition of a Measurement Scale

Following a literature review, the paper’s authors built a measure of perceived deception in advertising. The measure was fuelled by perceived veracity and perceived ethic, and may allow marketing practioners to evaluate the percieved deception of marketing communications before launching marketing campaigns.   Read full paper     Authors: Sawssen Garbouj Chaouachi and Kaouther Saied Ben...

The evolution and psychology of self-deception

This paper’s authors argue self-deception is an evolved trait with the evolutionary advantage of helping deceive others without severe cognitive strain. They suggest self-decpetion – which should in theory be paradoxical – is actually achieved through dissociations of mental processes, including conscious versus unconscious memories, conscious versus unconscious attitudes, and automatic versus controlled processes. The comprehensive paper goes on to contrast the author’s theories of self-deception with existing theories, and summarises the costs of self-deception.   Read...

Why Science Tells Us Not to Rely on Eyewitness Accounts

This article reports human memories as reconstructed fragments of information, as opposed to recorded feedback. According to the article false memories are easily recalled, jeopardising eyewitness reports. Eyewitness reports should therefore perhaps be used with caution, the article warns.   Read full paper     Authors:  Hal Arkowitz, Scott O....

Mood and audience effects on video lottery terminal gambling

This study looks into how mood and audience influence gambling behaviours. Although mood seems to have no effect on gambling behavior, participants with a negative mood prior to gambling report more positive moods after gambling. Those with positive and neutral moods report more negative moods after gambling. Additionally, the study finds observed participants spend less time gambling than unobserved participants.   Read full paper     Authors: Sandeep Mishra, Michael Morgan, Martin L. Lalumière, Robert J....

Risk Taking, Antisocial Behavior, and Life Histories

This paper explores the ultimate causes of risk-taking and anti-social behavior. In particular, it explores the notion of such behaviors as evolutionary. It suggests a research program informed by life history analysis may reveal the ultimate causes of risk-taking and anti-social behavior.   Read full paper     Authors: Sandeep Mishra and Martin L....

Expert Witness Confidence and Juror Personality: Their Impact on Credibility and Persuasion in the Courtroom

This paper investigates relationships between several courtroom variables, including expert witness confidence, juror personality, expert witness credibilty and juror sentencing. It finds expert witness confidence to have a significant effect on ratings of credibility, with moderate levels of manipulated confidence yielding the highest credibility. In the study, juror extroversion was positively related to perceptions of expert witness credibility. Predictably, juror ratings of expert witness credibility predicted juror sentencing outcome.   Read full paper     Authors: Robert...

The Compliance Budget: Managing Security Behaviour in Organisations

This paper finds individuals comply with security practices up to a certain point only, after which point compliance wains. Organisations can influence an individual’s perception of where the compliance threshold lies so long as they know of and can manipulate individual decision making processes and the feedback cycles associated with compliance. Further, after acknowledging the existence of a compliance budget, organisations can employ economic reasoning to ensure the compliance budget is used in the areas where compliance matters most.   Read full paper     Authors: Adam...

Relative status regulates risky decision making about resources in men: evidence for the co-evolution of motivation and cognition

In this study, males who thought others of equal status were watching and judging their decisions were more likely to persue a high-risk, high-reward means of recouping a financial loss over a no risk, low gain means with equal expected value. The results suggest relative status regulates risky decision-making in men.   Read full paper     Authors: Elsa Ermer, Leda Cosmides, and John...

NUDGE – Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness

Thorough book introducing “nudge” theory; the idea of subtly nudging people to make certain decisions or behaviours. Examples include placing certain foods in different orders to encourage healthy eating and changing default options to the desired choice. These small changes can drastically impact an individual’s behaviours.     Read full paper     Authors: Richard H. Thaler, Cass R....

Opening the Mind to Close It: Considering a Message in Light of Important Values Increases Message Processing and Later Resistance to Change

As the paper’s prescriptive title suggests, the authors find linking a message to any important values an individual might hold increases the effectiveness of a message – which is likely to be of use when a message has little or no personal relevance to an individual.   Read full paper     Authors: Kevin L. Blankenship, Duane T....

Social Psychological Factors in Lifestyle Change and Their Relevance to Policy

This article examines the social psychological theories and research that can be used to design better behaviour interventions. Although the paper focuses on health, the review could be applied in a wide variety of contexts – cyber security included.   Read full paper     Authors: Gregory R. Maio, Bas Verplanken, Antony S. R. Manstead, Wolfgang Stroebe, Charles Abraham, Paschal Sheeran, Mark...

Impeding ecological sustainability through selective moral disengagement

This paper discusses moral disengagement, with an emphasis on how moral disengagement impedes ecological sustainability. The author notes moral disengagement comes about through: exonerative comparisons that render detrimental practices as righteous; the use of convoluting language that disguises what is really being done; reducing accountability by displacement and diffusion of responsibility; minimising and disputing harmful effects; and dehumanising and blaming the victims and derogating the messengers of ecologically bad news.   Read full paper     Authors: Albert...

Accuracy of Deception Judgments

The authors review literature on deception studies and conclude people can correctly identify a lie (or a truth) 54% of the time. Authors also conclude that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest.   Read full paper     Authors: Charles F. Bond, Jr & Bella M....

Culture and nonverbal behaviour

Culture is defined as a product of biological needs and functions, social problems, and contexts. The role of culture in nonverbal communication (such as facial expressions) is considered, with the author concluding culture does indeed play a small role in the categorisation of nonverbal communication.   Read full paper     Authors: David...

The Persuasive Influence of Emotion in Cancer Prevention and Detection Messages

This paper reviews literature on the relationship between emotion and persuasion, with a focus on how the relationship might be harnessed to persuade people to both check for and take actions to prevent cancer. It suggests messages should select a particular emotion then consider how best the emotion might be triggered.   Read full paper     Authors: James Price Dillard, Robin L....

A framework for understanding trust factors in web-based health advice

Researchers present a framework for understanding what it is that makes people either accept or reject health advice offered online. An experiment suggests credibility of information and personalisation of content predict acceptance of advice, whereas design appeal most accurately predicts the rejection of advice.   Read full paper     Authors: Elizabeth Sillence, Pam Briggs, Peter Harris, Lesley...

Managing The Unexpected

What makes some organisations more reliable than others? The authors of Managing the Unexpected believe the answer lies in the differences in behaviours and learning styles of highly reliable organisations and organisations that are relatively unreliable. This book delves into the specific behaviours and processes that help make orgnisations reliable and responsive to unanticipated threats and stimuli.   Read full paper     Authors: Kathleen Sutcliffe, Karl...

The Nature and Replication of Routines

This paper seeks to properly define routines to facilitate further empirical research into how routines are built and how routines can be changed. Broadly, it defines routines as dispositions that trigger patterns of behaviours in a group of individuals, following cues. This is in contrast to habits – which affect individuals but not necessarily groups.   Read full paper     Authors: Geoffrey M....

Rational choice with status quo bias

This paper attempts to provide a rational choice theory that works in harmony with the status quo bias (the bias that causes many to prefer the status quo for no apparent rational reason). This theory modifies standard static choice theory by introducing the possibility that the decision maker may have an initial reference point which can be interpreted as a default option.     Read full paper     Authors: Yusufcan...